Malay Archipelago from occupation to independence :Part ||

The Government has responded to this demand and formed a mock Parliament to satisfy people. The parish Council established composed of 60 members, including 30 deputies Indonesia and twenty-five Dutch deputies ,and five foreigners representing foreign interests, and the Dutch Government should appoint a President of the Council of the Dutch ,Indonesians members are chosen by election either others by appointment ,and not for Parliament the supervisory authority or Government accountability.

The revolution caught in Java and Sumatra's western in 1926-1927 ,to ravage the Dutch presence in these islands, but foreign companies joined with the government to quell the revolution fearing on their economic interests. Netherlands has succeeded in put down the revolt, and denied about four thousand of the rebels into the New Guinean entertained, and restricted all freedoms. Foreign companies reaped the benefits of their participation with the government adopt an open-door policy or the principle of free trade as a reward, while the government turned its hold on the country.

The Dutch authorities began to introduce some industries so as not to depend on agriculture alone, encouraged by the abundance of labor and raw materials at low prices, particularly on the island of Java. Foreign firms didn't like the manufacturing policy in Indonesia, and took fighting the new industries, fearing of its superiority and its rival, as China and Japan, which wiped out many of these industries, but at the same time awakened the nationalist sentiment and pointing out the seriousness of construction of foreign companies on the country's economy.

Provincial political parties began supporting emerging industries as a sort of resistance the foreign intervention and featured the possibility of cooperation of the Indonesian people to boycott the European goods ,encourage and promoting local products.

Political parties emerged with economic programs, and founded the Indonesian people's union party by Dr. Sutomo, later known as the Great Indonesia party and called for the formation of a Indonesian National Bank, to finance the national economic projects ,and creating consortia and trade unions to promote the level of the craftsmen and artisans, and was naturally that the Government with foreign companies retreating ,and constitute a front against the national economy by legal and illegal ways, so restricted freedom of the press and meetings ,imposed heavy censorship on religious associations and political parties, deprived the inhabitants to engage in politics and denied Dr. Ahmad Sukarno to Flores Island in Northern Australia, and his colleagues Dr. Mohamed Hanna and Mr. Sutton shahrir and other leaders to the Moluccas, and others to New Guinean ,and remained in exile until the movement of the second world war to the far East.

Netherlands fell into the Germany's grip with the onset of World War II on June 10, 1940, and Queen Wilhelmina fled to London. Indonesians used the incident and demanded a real constitution, the Dutch authorities feared of Indonesia to take off the Dutch rule, so rejected the reforms required, and rapidly, Japanese forces invaded the archipelago in March 1942 and tight its grip on the far East, especially the Allied colonies in that region, to prevent the arrival of any aid from this area to China ,putting her hand on the rich areas and control the far East markets, in addition to preventing occupation these colonies by the United States after its entry into the war.

The Japanese colonization of the archipelago Islands spilled about three and a half years, Japan advocated the principle of Asia for the Asians and tried to show good faith, but colonization is colonization whether far or soon.

Actual practices of Japanese came not less than from its predecessor Dutch or English in the region and looked for all that there is no salvation only by resistance and expelling every foreigner, and doubtless the consequences of the war made the Japanese draining the country's resources in a form that debunked their claims quickly , Japan also used the Indonesians in the hostilities. The Japanese did not provide for the people of the region only a hollow slogans to excite them on the white race to be the loyalty in the region of the Asian yellow race.

After the appearance of the face of Japanese colonialism obnoxious ,the Indonesians began resistance strongly and demand the independence, Japan has striven to confront resistance movements violently. The resistance began in secret, but Japan managed to arrest opposition leaders and sentenced some to death and the others to exile outside the country. This situation remained until Japan surrendered on 15 August 1945. The Indonesians seized the opportunity and declared their independence on 17 August 1945, based on agreements and treaties signed by the Presidents of the United States and their Allies during World War II, and according to the promise of the Queen of Netherlands during the war, to be of Netherlands colonies after the war, like the British Commonwealth, based on equal rights and interests, and the Indonesians called Republic under the chairmanship of Dr. Ahmad Sukarno and his deputy Dr. Mohammad Hatta .

The national front was formed to draft the country's constitution, and within six weeks of the proclamation of the Republic ,the Indonesian government was able to impose its sovereignty over most of the Islands, then the Dutch and English forces appeared off the coast of Indonesia to disarm the Japanese forces frontline, but the national government forces refused to allow the Dutch troops to enter the country.

The efforts resulted in the meeting of the parties in the Batavia (Jakarta), but the Republic stuck to the independence of their country, while the Dutch holding to dissolve the Republic as an illegitimate government formed under Japanese occupation ,and the Japan's presence must end and all the consequent, and all parties hold to his view and negotiations failed after five days.

After the failure of the negotiations ,Dutch troops started to disembark in Java and Sumatra, and there have been bloody clashes between the two sides, after which the Dutch forces were able to establish control over major cities ,thanks to the help of the British forces in collusion with the Dutch.

  On January 1946, Ukraine made an urgent request to the Security Council to consider the problem of Indonesia promptly to threaten international peace and security and negotiations between the two sides to reach a solution to the problem by peaceful means .In 17 September 1946 a Dutch mission arrived to start new negotiations ,and the parties reached in mid-June 1946 to agreement stipulates to recognition of the Indonesian Republic as reality and have effective control over Java, Sumatra and Madura Islands, and the Dutch forces in any of these areas should leave gradually, as provided for in the convention on the cooperation of the parties in the governance of the country, and establish a Federal Government one January 1949 include all Indonesia ,called the Indonesian United States, comprises the Republic Borneo and the eastern islands of the archipelago to be with the Netherlands Union under the Dutch Crown, its mission is defense, international relations and economic and cultural affairs and the development of common interests ,on 25 November 1947 the Agreement was signed definitively and the General Assembly of the United Nations blessed the treaty.

The convention not carried out and the differences surfaced between the parties, with respect to the foreign affairs ,lift the Dutch naval blockade and return the foreign property to its rightful owners, and the military forces started clashes with the Republic forces since July 20, 1947, the Security Council met at the end of July 1947 for the consideration of the issue, and the Council decided to approve the proposal for a ceasefire ,and urged the parties to enter into negotiations to resolve the conflict peacefully, a truce has been holding and the parties began in the implementation of the ceasefire agreement and identify areas of influence ,but it failed because of the insistence of Netherlands to subdue the new Republic ,and adherence the Republic of Indonesia to a partnership with complete independence giving her the right of full sovereignty over its territory ,but the Dutch military operations resumed on December 19, 1948, in breach of the armistice agreement .
The parties met at the round table conference in the Hague on August 23, 1949. Under the auspices of the United Nations mediation committee, the negotiators signed on the charter of the conference containing the draft regulation on the transfer of sovereignty of the Republic of Indonesia unconditionally ,and create the Dutch-Indonesian Union to manage the interests of both parties, especially in foreign policy and defense ,and one outstanding problem remained between the parties ,is the problem of New Guinea or West Irian.

The Dutch authorities refused the accession of the territory to the Indonesian Federation and the disputes continued about territory .the Bandung Conference April 1954 showed the intentions of the Indonesian government in support of non-aligned policy, which led Netherlands to loss the support of Western countries and the United States, and the fate of the territory ended to close the negotiations by the United Nations General Assembly on November 29 ,1957, Indonesia was forced to nationalize the Dutch companies and prevent the entry of the Dutch ,and seized the plants and rubber plantations and various Dutch establishments, and Netherlands lost everything owned in Indonesia because of West Irian.


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